NAACL 2018 paper, by Rachel Rudinger, Aaron Steven White, and Benjamin Van Durme Rachel comes on to the podcast, telling us about what factuality is (did an event happen?), what datasets exist for doing this task (a few; they made a new, bigger one), and how to build models to predict factuality (turns out a vanilla biLSTM does quite well). Along the way, we have interesting discussions about how you decide what an "event" is, how you label factuality (whether something happened) on inherently uncertain text (like "I probably failed the test"), and how you might use a system that predicts factuality in some end task. https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Neural-models-of-factuality-Rudinger-White/4d62a1e7819f9e3f8c837832c66659db5a6d9b37
Hello and welcome to the NLP highlights podcast where we talk about interesting work in natural language processing.
This is Matt gardener and Waleed Ammar. We are research scientists at the Allen Institute for Artificial Intelligence.
All right. Today our guest is Rachel Rudinger who is a final year PhD student at Johns Hopkins university studying with Ben Van Durme. She’s done a lot of work on natural language understanding, particularly common sense inference, semantic parsing and knowledge acquisition from texts, these kinds of things. Rachel, welcome to the program.
Thank you so much for having me. I’m really excited to be here.
And today we’re going to talk about a paper that you published at NAACL 2018 called Neural Models, models of Factuality with Aaron White at the university of Rochester and your advisor Ben Van Durme. So I guess the, where we should start here is talking about what factuality is and how it relates to people that, how it relates to things that people might be familiar with because I think this is more of a less well known kind of phenomenon. Do you want to tell us about what this is?
Yeah, absolutely. So what we’re concerned with here is the task of event factuality prediction and what that is simply is determining whether some event mentioned in text happened or not. We’re just simply asking the question did it happened? And note that this is with respect to the author’s perspective. So did the event happen according to the author rather than some absolute real world truth. And I think this is easiest to understand with respect to a few simple examples. So I’ll just start out with a few examples. So consider the sentences. “Pat watered the plants.” And “Pat did not water the plants.” Both of these are referring to a watering event, but of course in the first case that watering event happened and in the second one it didn’t. Of course event factuality prediction is a much broader than just negation detection.
It actually encompasses a lot of very interesting diverse linguistic features that are going to play a role in the determination of factuality. So I think it would be helpful to perhaps run through a few examples of the different types of linguistic features that are going to play a role in factuality. So I think the, perhaps the best studied of these are these various types of clause embedding verbs like verticals, non verticals, factive, implicative consider for example, the difference between “Pat failed to water the plants” and “Pat did not fail to water the plants.” In that case failed is going to flip the factuality of the embedded clause and when fail is under negation that flips the, the polarity again. So “Pat did not fail to water the plants.” means that Pat did water the plants. And so there’s a lot of different kinds of behaviors that linguists have categorized under these different types of clause embedding verbs.
But there’s a lot of other features that we would want to be interested in as well. So for example, a modal auxiliaries, “Pat could water the plants.” We’re going to be concerned with epistemic modals. So like “Pat probably watered the plants.” Or “Pat definitely watered the plants.” And evidentials. So things like “John heard that Pat watered the plant.” Adjectives like “Pat was glad to water the plants.” Means that Pat watered, the plants quantifieres as well. So things like “Pat watered all of the plants.” So a watering event happened versus “Pat watered none of the plants.” We can even get into things like nouns. So “Pat’s watering the plants was a hallucination.” This sounds like it’s going to be factual all the way up and all the way until we get up to the word hallucination and we realized that it’s not factual.
And I think one other, one other interesting thing I’ll throw in is that even holding a lexical item constant, you can just slightly vary the syntactic frame that it occurs in and that will have an, that could also have an impact on factuality. So an example here is something like with the verb “remember” we can have a sentence like “Pat did not remember to water the plants.” And that means the plants didn’t get watered. But “Pat did not remember that she’d watered the plants.” means that it did happen. And so just by changing that one syntactic feature, you actually get a different result. So I think that this is why event factuality is really an interesting task is that it’s very simple to explain, but in fact it gives us this window into a lot of very interesting diverse linguistic phenomena. So from a linguistic perspective, it’s very interesting. But I think it also has applications for useful NLP tasks as well. And I can get into some of that as well.
Yeah, I think it’d be interesting to talk a little bit more about the linguistic stuff first. You gave a really nice overview. I wonder how this plays with like presupposition.
Oh yeah, absolutely.
Is there any, are there any interactions here?
So factive verbs like “know” are going to trigger a presupposition. And so that means like if we say “John knows that Pat watered the plants.” Presupposes that Pat watered the plants because we can put this under negation and say, “John does not know that Pat wanted the plants.” So this is a standard test for presupposition and it still gives us the result that Pat watered the plants.
Okay. Interesting. Yeah, I guess the I feel like there are, there are a lot of NLP people who don’t really study linguistics or you’ve used a lot of words so far that I think they wouldn’t be familiar with. And so it’s nice to give a good explanation of what’s going on here. It’s actually pretty complicated to know what things are actually being asserted. It’s not straightforward and in a lot of cases.
Right. Absolutely. And so there is we are interested in different ways of getting at the inferences that you’d want to make. So some of these are going to come from presuppositions, like in the case of know, and others will be entailments or even implicature. So you’re right. That’s very interesting. And it’s sort of the intersection of all of these.
There were a few examples in your paper that I wanted to dig into a little bit more because there were a few some issues that I’m still not totally clear on that seem a little ambiguous. So, you said one of the examples is “Joe failed to leave no trace.” So here, what event are you talking about? It seems to me like there are possibly multiple events that you could be talking about when you’re looking at factuality. So what, what is it that we’re looking at in this sentence?
So, first consider the case where Joe left something behind. That’s certainly something that could happen. So if we imagine that we’re in some contexts like “Joe broke into a bank in the middle of the night and Joe left behind fingerprints and therefore was caught by the police.” That’s sort of the positive version of that event, leaving behind something. And so leaving no trace means that that leaving didn’t happen. I don’t know if that answers your question.
Yup. Yup. And then would you also consider that failed? Is there a failing event that has some notion of factuality or is that not considered?
Ah, I see. So I think what you’re saying is can we frame a negative event as an event in and of itself?
Yeah, I guess I’m even just trying to understand what is the task here, because there, there are a few different ways where you can define these events, right?
Right. So I think we’re starting off with a sort of commonsensical, a notion of some event happening having some sort of manifestation and we can also talk about the absence of that manifestation. So for example you know, we talk about, we say things like “it didn’t rain.” And that’s clearly something that conveys information. But we’re talking about the absence of an event or the fact that it didn’t happen. So I think that is kind of what we’re getting at here is, you know, we have a base sense of some event can happen, but we can also observe that it didn’t happen.
Okay. And then something like “I failed the test.” Is in fact a failing event. And it can be cause that’s something that was actualized. Is that, am I understanding that right?
Sure. yeah, I guess a lot of this has to do with, you know, the lexicon and what kinds of events we decide to draw a, a concept around. So we, we can have a concept of failing as an event where, you know, it’s, that condition is met. If you your score was below a certain grade, you know, if you, you got a 55 or something could qualify as failing. So, you’re right that, that it could depend on the way that you frame it, that in some cases a negative event could qualify as a positive kind of other event. But it’s, in our case, what we’re looking at is we’re sort of, we’re sticking very close to the actual lexical items in the sentence. And so if it’s written in terms of Joe failed to leave no trace, then we’re looking at is what we’re looking at is the leaving event
So concretely the each event and the data sets that you looked into, is one word and the sentence, is that correct?
That’s right. Right. So what we’re looking at is the heads of predicates and this is all determined. So, all of our data is on top of universal dependency parses. And so we just extract one token that corresponds to some predicate or the head of a predicate.
And any head or a predicate would be a valid input to the model.
So, when we actually did the annotation, and I’ll get into this more later we extracted predicate candidates to label and we had a Mechanical Turk workers verify that those actually did correspond to predicates and that the extraction was done correctly. What we’re actually modeling here, I should be clear that we’re just, our task here is given some predicate. So given some target predicate, we have to decide whether or not it’s factual, but we’re not doing the separate task of event detection in this case.
Great. Yeah, that’s a really good distinction. So, in a sentence like, Joe failed to leave no trace something somewhere is going to decide for us what events I should care about. And then given that event, which maybe is a leaving a trace event I’m going to build a model to say, does the sentence imply that this happened or not?
Or, or to what extent does it, because we could have, we could have like a degree here with like probably or could have or whatever. Right,
So that’s what, that’s what’s going on. Okay. So then I think we’ve got a good handle on what exactly you’re trying to do here. Do you want to tell us about what data people use to do this kind of stuff?
Yeah, sure. So there are a few existing event factuality data sets. All first, describe the data set that we constructed and then I’ll sort of compare a few of these. So our new dataset, it’s called, “It Happened” and it’s part of the universal decompositional semantics initiative or UDS. And what UDS is, is it’s this collaboration that we have between a few universities where we’re layering on different semantic annotations on top of universal dependencies. And so we’re sort of farming out the issue of a syntactic structure to the universal dependencies and a predicate argument extraction tool that we have that runs on top of the universal dependencies. It’s called a PredPatt and it’s just a rule based system. And then separately we want to annotate various semantic labels on top of these predicates and arguments.
And we’re doing this in a decompositional compositional way, which means that multiple labels can potentially apply and we’re interested in targeting very relatively simple labels that can be translated into simple questions that could be answered by a crowdsource workers. And this is sort of in contrast to these larger fixed ontologies where might need to train an expert to know the ontology well to, to decide which one correct label to apply. So instead we’re sort of breaking it up into these different properties. And so one of these is factuality. And so getting back to the, It Happened dataset. This is a dataset that covers about 27,000 predicates for factuality. That’s as far as we know about twice the size of the next largest factuality dataset. And this covers all of the English web tree bank in the universal dependencies and that has different genres like blogs, reviews, emails as well as newsgroups.
And the way that we get these labels, as I’ve already mentioned, is through crowdsourcing. So we already talked about the predicate verification. So we use PredPatt to identify the candidate predicates and we verified those with crowdsource workers. We, also asked first, you know, does the sentence make sense? So we presented a sentence ask, does it make sense? Is the highlighted word a predicate? And then the real the main questions of interest are, did that event happen? So we’re asking about factuality and that’s just a binary yes, no question in our protocol. And then we ask for a confidence score between zero and four. So in the end we have just a binary label plus a confidence score. Now there are three other factuality datasets that we were looking at in this work. And this was very much based on some work by Stanovsky et all 2017 in creating a unified factuality dataset, basically taking a preexisting factuality data sets.
So that includes fact bank, a data set from the university of Washington and meantime and sort of mapping all of their labels on to a unified negative three to three scales. So where positive three is going to be definitely happened. The most factual and and negative three is definitely didn’t happen. And I think this borrows from the original labeling system of the university of Washington dataset. And what’s interesting is that when we look at, so having all of these datasets mapped to negative three to three, so we also did that for our own dataset. We mapped using the confidence scores and the polarity to map onto that minus three to three scale. Looking at the distribution over these labels. One thing that we noticed is that a fact bank UDaB and meantime are all very skewed toward the positive end of the scale. So it’s very factual, heavy and our data set also has that skew to some extent. But in contrast there is a lot more. It’s a more in Tropic distribution and we have more representation at the negative end of the scale. And we think that that’s basically a result of having a different genre coverage where a fact bank you’d have in meantime, these other datasets are more focused on a Newswire data.
So can we back up just a, and talk about this Confidence judgment by the crowdworkers?
So let’s say I see a sentence like “Joe probably failed the test.” That’s a failing event, but it says, probably, so how would, how would you expect a crowd worker to label this? Did it happen?
So I think that sort of what one issue that, that any protocol is going to run into is that there’s a many different sources of uncertainty. So there can be uncertainty just from the linguistic content of the sentence. So what, what is the author attesting to? So the, the author is saying, this event probably happened or there could just be annotator uncertainty on the basis of, you know, some ambiguity or any other issue that arises that that causes annotator uncertainty. And so one choice is to try to meet all of these out into you know, try to say, you know, what’s what’s uncertainty from the text in and of itself? What’s uncertainty based on some other linguistic features like tense or modality. And what’s confidence, you know, what’s your own confidence rating on top of all of that? And that’s a little bit complicated. So we chose to just sort of smush it all into one confidence rating. And so I would expect that that might be a positive rating with a low confidence. But yeah, either way you can sort of choose between having a very complicated protocol or conflating these issues.
Yeah, I guess you’re forcing someone to make a binary decision. Yes. No, on something that is inherently uncertain. Which seems interesting because I don’t know if it’s probably, yeah, like the, there I guess language allows the threshold of certainty that you express as a speaker. Right. And, and what you’re saying when you say the annotator has to pick yes. No, you’re, you’re saying the annotator has to impose a particular threshold on that spectrum and maybe different annotators will put that threshold somewhere else. It seems a little bit tricky to get consistency in annotation there. Any, any thoughts on that? I guess that, that, that sounds like an argument to me for having a minus three to three rating, like the other datasets that you talked about instead of having this separation.
I think either way you have somewhat of a problem just because either way you have a bit of a calibration issue and when you, you still have the ability to express a confidence. So either way we would expect the rating to be you know, after scaling somewhat closer to zero.
Okay. Yeah, that, that makes a lot of sense. So like I, yes, I forced the person to pick a binary thing, but that’s just going to be the sign on something that has a very small value in the first place. And so maybe the annotator in the negative three to three sense, sort of put this somewhere between negative one and one a in your setting. It’ll be kind of random whether they pick yes or no, but they’ll have picked a low confidence value. And so it’ll be in the same range in the end anyway.
Right. And, and I think that even, if you’re doing a minus three to three scale, you know, the annotator still has to pick, you know, decide has to make a binary choice about whether or not it’s going to be positive or negative. You know, is it greater than zero or less than zero? So I’m not sure that using a minus three to three scale, you know, really escapes it. I think either way you’re going to have that sort of issue.
Yeah, that’s a good point. Okay. And before I interrupted you, you were telling us about these datasets. I guess one question that I still had is maybe this is going back a little bit to even though the linguistic phenomenon that we’re looking at here, what, what kinds of features in this dataset might help you decide factuality does that question make sense? I’m like, what, what kinds of things would you be looking at as a linguist, as an annotator trying to decide if a particular event was factual or not?
So I think it gets back to a lot of the examples that I gave in the beginning. So those are various kinds of lexical cues or even syntactic cues that are going to influence the annotation. But I think the, the idea behind our annotation scheme is not to have a really trained experts who are, you know, looking for very specific features, but rather these are sentences that can be understood by any speaker of English. And so any sort of common sense understanding should enable a, an annotator to decide whether an event happened or not. So they may or may not be aware of the specific you know, features that are firing.
Okay. so then I guess to summarize the discussion that we’ve had so far, we’ve talked about factuality as a linguistic phenomenon that there’s some process somehow that that gets us from language to a set of events. And then for each event, we want to judge whether or not the person who spoke the language is, is asserting that this event factually happened or not. And then you’ve told us about a data set that you’ve constructed and, and some others that other people have constructed to let us build models to actually test this. And by construction these datasets do both go from language to a set of events using some process. And then and then label the actual events is factual or not. And then I guess now’s a good time to talk about what kind of models people use to try to solve this task. Do you want to tell us about that?
Sure. a lot of prior work on this has been based on using a rule based systems. That sort of capture various linguistic theories about how factuality is determined. So one thing that we see in a lot of prior work are these type level implication signatures that are going to so, so a verb that has an embedded clause that embedded clause can be positive or negative. On the basis of what type of verb is embedding it and whether that verb is under negation. And so you can come up with these one place or two place implication signatures that describe that behavior. And then what a lot of these systems do is sort of starting at the top of a parse tree with a positive polarity at the top, at the root.
You kind of work your way down the tree and every time you hit one of these signatures, you based on the current polarity, decide what the new polarity is and sort of propagate your way down the tree. And so that’s sort of what a lot of these rule-based systems look like. And more recently there have been, there’s been some work. I think by, let’s see we had Al 2015 and Stanovsky at all 2017 on using more feature-based systems or combining rule-based systems with feature-based systems. And you know, passing these through some kind of support vector regression. And as far as I know, this is, this is the first work that’s trying to do this task with neural models. And so I can get into some of the details about what we actually implemented here.
Sure, that’d be great.
Yes. So one thing we mentioned is that the there’s outside context and inside context and those are going to be things like clause embedding verbs for outside context or nouns for inside contexts like hallucination. And there’s a lot of examples of cases where it would be important to look both above and below the verb of interest in the syntax tree. And so what we’re doing is we’re working with bi- directional neural networks. And I should just mentioned that the kind of philosophy that we have here is not to develop the most fancy or complicated network possible to do this task, but rather to focus on relatively simple architectures that we think might be able to be capable of doing the factuality detection test and pushing those as far as they can go and see what they’re capable of.
So in that spirit, we’re dealing entirely with bi-directional recurrent neural networks. And we have three different models. We have a linear biLSTM, just the standard implementation a dependency tree biLSTM. So that’s notable for, being a, a bi-directional tree LSTM on top of dependency tree structure. And then finally we tested a hybrid version where we just concatenated the States from the linear model and the tree model and train that end to end. And so to actually do the factuality prediction on this minus three to three score for any of these models, we take the hidden state of interest that corresponds to the token that we want to make the prediction on. And we just pass that hidden state through a two layer NLP. We use the smooth L1 loss and train it end to end. And I should also note that we used glove embeddings for the embedding layer. So that’s, that’s basically the structure of the networks. Fairly simple. But they work actually fairly well.
Yeah. I guess lots of people have said these days that if you want to do NLP, what you should do is take your text, use some kind of glove embedding, I guess these days it would be Elmo then a run a couple of bi-directional LSTMs on top of your data and then predict what you want to predict and sounds like that’s exactly what you’re doing here.
Yeah, I think that our results would support that.
Yeah. Yeah. So you want to tell us about how all that works?
Yeah, sure. So what we found generally was a little bit to our surprise that the linear model generally was outperforming the tree model. We thought that the tree model might do well just because of the basis of these rule based systems that have, you know, this percolating down the tree of the, of the polarity. But in general, the, the linear model worked, worked better. And we did find though that the hybrid model in some cases was able to outperform either the tree or the linear. So I think that does suggest that to a certain extent the tree model is contributing something. And I can get into a little bit of the details of, you know, what might be going on there. We also ran some you know, multitask experiments that I can talk about. So
I guess, I guess first is there a high level picture of like how well this works? If, if given a random sentence, do I get it right most of the time? How far off are we?
So so it depends on the dataset. We measured performance in terms of correlation over. So we also reported on a mean absolute error, but we think that correlation is a, is a little bit of a better measure just because some of these data sets have different distribution so that controls for that a little better.
Yeah. Yeah. When the data is highly skewed and absolute accuracy is not always the best metric.
Right. In some of these, the data is so skewed that just a baseline of all just guessing three all the time has a very, very low mean absolute error. And so I think that yeah, correlation is a little bit more informative. Just to give a sense, like in general, we’re doing somewhere on the larger data sets in, in the 0.7 0.8 range on correlation.
Is there is there any intuition for what 0.8 correlation means? I don’t think I have any myself. Like I just have a hard time placing like, how good is that?
I guess, let me rephrase my question in a way that we often think, often on my project, would you think of integrating this model as part of a production system?
I mean, I think that, I think that’s a very context specific question. So I, you know, I would certainly want to test it out in whatever application you wanted to use it in. Sort of depending on you know, what, what the downstream task is, you know, I, I think that sort of depends on that yet. I don’t know if that answers your question. I, I think, I guess, I guess briefly I would say that, you know, I think we’ve, we’ve shown some definite improvements on this task, but I, I wouldn’t call it solved. That’s, that’s what I would say.
One thing I’ve been thinking about recently is how if you have large datasets and I train, I split this large data set into train and test and evaluate just on this data set date on this test set that’s in the same distribution as my train set. I might not get a good performance, a good picture of how performances like in the wild when I would actually want to use this thing. And I wonder if you’ve thought about like building a small diagnostic dataset for this where it’s small, so you wouldn’t train on this thing. But after having trained on it, you could like probe and see if this is actually capturing what we want from a linguistic sense. Has anyone done this?
Yes. In fact, we have this is actually one of our upcoming papers at EMNLP on lexical syntactic inference in neural models. And this is work with Aaron White and Kyle Rollins and Ben Van Durme. So basically we have this dataset. It’s, it’s called mega verticality. And the idea is that you take all of these different clause embedding verbs of interest and drop them into a bunch of different syntactic frames. And so it’s really a type level data set. And we fill in the sentence with really semantically bleached arguments. So you would get sentences that look like someone verbs that some, that a particular thing happened. And so we just have a bunch of these very generic semantically bleached sentences that test out different clause embedding verbs in different syntactic frames. And what we find is that there are a lot of cases that these models don’t do very well on.
And another interesting thing that these experiments revealed is that where we had originally thought that the linear model was doing much better than the tree model. It actually turns out that on this targeted type level dataset the, tree model does a little better. And this I think is sort of a result of the tree in the linear models doing well on complimentary syntactic frames. And so the distribution in this type level data set, of course, it doesn’t match the distribution in the real world or token level data sets that we are evaluating on in, in the NAACL paper. And so I think that is sort of to account for some of the differences.
Interesting. Yeah, that’s nice. I saw a talk at ACL by Schwartz about doing something very similar, where you able to diagnostic data set for NLI kinds of stuff that you get very different pictures out like that. I like this. So I’m excited to read your NLP paper. I guess the last thing I guess that we can talk about here is you ran a whole bunch of experiments, you hinted at some of them. Are there any highlights from the, all of the experiments that you ran that you want to tell us about?
Sure. so one, one major thing that we tried out was treating factuality prediction on all of these datasets as a multitask problem because what we have is four different event factuality datasets. All, all of their data is collected under slightly different protocols, slightly different genres but still at the end of the day, very similar tasks. And so what we did was we so first we just tried lumping all the data together. So treating it as sort of the single task problem and then implementing a multitask architecture where the basic idea was that the biLSTM parameters were shared across all of the datasets. But then for each individual data set, we had a task specific or dataset specific really multilayer perceptron parameters independent. And so this actually gives us additional boost on, these tasks. So we were able to do a little better with that multitask set up.
Yeah. I guess when the datasets aren’t huge, it’s not that surprising that you’re going to get gains by combining the data. Right. I guess sometimes the problem is that the data sets aren’t close enough that I’m sharing really helps you. Right. But in this case it looks like it does, so that’s good.
Right. So, yeah, this was really sort of a prime opportunity or a really prototypical case where we, we thought that multitask learning might help and it, and it really did.
Yeah. I guess another in talking with people also at ACL, we, we were wondering how much of the gain of multitask learning is from seeing more, language and that if you use some large pre-trained language model, a lot of the times the gains that you see for multitask learning just go away because you pre-trained the language model on billions of tokens, you’ve already seen gotten the benefits from like seeing words in various trained sets, you don’t get as much benefit.
Yeah. I think that’s, that’s a very real phenomenon and something that we have seen in other closely related work on semantic protorole labeling. We tried a bunch of different related semantic role labeling tasks and nothing worked better than initializing the, the encoder a nueral MT encoder. And so I, I think that’s a very real phenomenon and, and we would definitely like to look into that next and see, you know, how much, how much we can get out of using something like Elmo. And, and what happens in that case?
Interesting. Great. I think so that was all the questions that I had. Is there anything that you wanted to talk about that we missed? Any or any last thoughts?
So I think, it would be nice to mention just a few cases where factuality detection event factuality prediction might be useful for someone of a more applied NLP event. And I think that this would be in cases, for instance, in information extraction or knowledge-based population where, you know, you’re extracting these information and you’d really like to know that what you’re extracting is true according to the text. And so, you know, if you imagine a sentence like his birth certificate disproves conspiracy theories that Barack Obama was born in Indonesia, you know, really naive information extraction system is going to pull out, you know an incorrect here of, you know, where Barack Obama was born. And so you’d really like to be able to model that semantic context better and know automatically whether, or not some thing you’re extracting is factual or not.
Yeah. Yeah. That, that’s a great point. I, I had meant to ask that and I forgot. So thanks for bringing it up. I guess. If you followed work on open information extraction over the last few years, people have tried to address this because you’re right that the naive thing to do just totally fails and these more complex nested clauses and so like they add some additional context like this was seen inside or whatever. And it, I guess it feels like if they had actually taken the linguistic perspective of factuality, they’d have come up with a stronger theory here. Or that you could predict both the event that you pull out with the open IES system and predict whether or not it’s factual using something like your dataset. So, yeah, that, that’s a really great point. I think it would help.
And I’ll just also add that I think, you know, natural language inference is, you know, one of my interests and something that’s very a big interest in the field. And I think there’s a really tight connection between factuality prediction and NLI where you know, for instance, if you’re building an NLI system and you want it to be really good, it really should have some sense you know, whether implicitly or explicitly of factuality because it’s going to be important in certain kinds of inferences. Like, you know, we want to be able to distinguish a sentence like “Pat failed to water the plants.” Versus “Pat watered the plants.” Because we want to know whether the soil is dry or wet. And, and even more directly, we can recast factuality in NLI is such a, it’s such a broad framework that it’s, it’s really powerful. And it can subsume these smaller semantic tasks. So we can even directly recast the task of factuality detection. As you know, premise hypothesis pairs where, you know, I have paths. This might be something like the watering happened. And in fact, we’ve actually done this as a way to enable probing of NLI systems. So that’s maybe one other angle that might be of interest.
Yeah. Great. Thanks. This is really interesting conversation. Thanks for joining us.
Thank you so much for having me.